Systematic theology / Norman R. Gulley, Vol. III, creation, Christ, salvation

Main Author: Gulley, N. R., 1933-, Norman R.Language: англійська.Country: СПОЛУЧЕНІ ШТАТИ АМЕРИКИ.Publication: Berrien Springs, Mich. : Andrews University Press, ©2012Description: xxiv, 869 p.ISBN: 978-1-883925-71-0.Dewey: 230/.044, 23Contents note: Preface -- xxi Acknowledgments -- xxiv Section Introduction: Creation -- 1 Chapter one Planet Earth and Its Heavens Introduction -- 5 Trinity -- 5 Biblical Chiasm -- 7 Importance of Logical Consistency -- 8 How Did God Create? -- 9 Supernatural Creation -- 10 Historical -- 14 Universal -- 16 Independent of ANE Texts -- 16 Cosmic Controversy -- 18 The Genesis Creation -- 18 In the Beginning -- 18 -- 19 The Gap Theory -- 22 -- 22 -- 25 -- 26 -- 30 Creatio Ex Nihilo Opposed -- 31 Creatio Ex Nihilo Is Biblical -- 33 Matter Is Not Eternal -- 36 Creative Commands -- 37 Literary Framework Hypothesis -- 38 Contribution of the Hebrew Waw Consecutive -- 43 Creation and Time -- 43 Instantaneous -- 44 One Thousand Years -- 45 Day-Ages -- 46 Revelatory Days -- 46 Twenty-Four-Hour Days -- 47 -- 47 -- 50 -- 51 -- 53 -- 55 -- 56 Climax of Creation -- 56 Creation in Scripture -- 63 Christ and Creation -- 63 Job/Psalms -- 68 Ecclesiastes -- 69 Isaiah -- 69 Jeremiah -- 70 Nehemiah -- 71 New Testament -- 71 Greatest Evidence for Creation -- 73 Conclusion -- 74 Study Questions -- 75 Chapter Two Human Creation and Nature Introduction -- 79 Creation of Adam and Eve -- 81 Cosmic Context -- 81 Creation -- 82 Created in the Image of God -- 84 Image of the Trinity -- 87 Image as Dominion -- 88 Image as Physical -- 90 Image as Character -- 91 Image as Communion -- 92 Image as Freedom to Choose -- 92 Image Remains -- 93 Subordination Debate -- 95 Importance of Ecology: In a Theological System -- 97 Introduction -- 97 Ecological Theology -- 99 Theology of Nature -- 101 Contribution of Science -- 103 Ecology as Part of Creation -- 103 Ecological Crisis -- 105 -- 107 Solidarity of All Races -- 108 Created Wholistically -- 109 Humans as Living Souls -- 111 Is the Soul Immortal? -- 113 Nonbiblical View of Souls -- 116 Nonbiblical View of Death -- 117 Expulsion from Eden -- 119 No Intermediate State -- 120 Great Counterfeit -- 122 After-Death Apparitions -- 124 God Opposes Spiritism -- 125 Corporate Victory over Death -- 125 Some Humans in Heaven -- 126 Conclusion -- 128 Study Questions -- 129 Chapter Three Human Fall and Nature Introduction -- 133 Structure of Genesis 1-3 -- 134 Fall of Humans -- 134 Cosmic Controversy Context -- 136 Method of Temptation -- 137 Purpose of Temptation -- 139 Infallible Evidence -- 140 Effects of Sin on Adam and Eve -- 142 Damaged Image of God -- 145 Total Depravity and the Image of God -- 146 -- 146 -- 149 -- 150 -- 151 -- 152 God and Evil -- 152 Sin Defined -- 155 Sin as Absence of Good -- 155 Sin as an Act -- 156 Sin as More than an Act -- 156 -- 156 -- 157 -- 158 Two Adams Compared -- 159 Self-Centered Sinners at Birth -- 162 Theories of Imputation -- 163 Pelagian Theory -- 163 Arminian Theory -- 164 New School Theory -- 164 Federal Theory -- 164 Mediate Imputation Theory -- 165 Augustinian Theory -- 165 Summary of Theories -- 166 Evaluation -- 167 Conclusion -- 167 Study Questions -- 167 Chapter Four Darwin’s Journey from Scripture to Philosophy Introduction -- 170 Evolution’s Attempt to Explain Evil -- 171 Darwin’s Turn from Scripture to Other Books -- 174 Influence from John Milton -- 174 How Theologians Viewed Nature -- 175 -- 176 -- 176 -- 177 Conclusion -- 178 Study Questions -- 178 Chapter Five Theistic Evolution: The Quest for Reconciliation Introduction -- 181 Are There Two Reconciliable Worldviews? -- 182 My Presuppositions -- 183 My General Understanding of Evolution -- 184 In Which Worldview Shall We Live? -- 186 Science Indebted to Scripture -- 188 Early Scientists Were Creationists -- 189 Working with Scripture without Compromise: Examples of How to Work with Two Worldviews -- 189 Ian G. Barbour (1923- ) -- 191 The Integration of Creation and Evolution -- 193 Evaluation -- 194 Attempts to Reconcile Biblical Creation and Evolution -- 195 Background -- 195 Gordon D. Kaufman (1925-2011) -- 197 -- 197 Howard J. Van Till (1938- ) -- 197 -- 198 Keith Ward (1938- ) -- 199 -- 201 Keith B. Miller -- 202 -- 203 Arthur Peacocke (1924-2006) -- 204 -- 208 Ted Peters and Martinez Hewlett -- 209 -- 209 John C. Polkinghorne (1930- ) -- 212 -- 214 Francis Collins (1950- ) -- 215 -- 217 Evaluation of an Unofficial Adventist Integration Thesis -- 218 Catholic Integration Thesis -- 225 Evaluation -- 225 National Geographic Integration Thesis -- 226 Evaluation -- 226 General Evaluation of Theistic Evolutionists -- 226 Theistic Evolutionists with Greater Belief in Scripture -- 227 Evangelicals: Scripture Inerrant or Not? -- 230 Creation Week Questioned -- 230 Origin of Death Questioned -- 231 Plan of Salvation Questioned -- 232 Biblical God Questioned -- 233 Christ’s Spoken Word Questioned -- 237 Christ’s Sabbath Questioned -- 239 Theistic Evolution Questioned -- 240 -- 243 -- 244 Meaning Different from Facts/Knowledge -- 246 Evaluation -- 246 God’s Urgent End-Time Challenge -- 246 Conclusion -- 250 Study Questions -- 252 Appendix: Theodicy of William Dembski (2009) -- 252 Chapter Six Evolution Questioned: General Evaluation Introduction -- 260 Evolutionary Claims -- 260 Darwinism -- 261 Influential Worldview -- 264 Causation in Nature -- 267 Descent or Design: Things to Consider -- 269 Evolutionary Research -- 272 Philosophical Assumptions -- 272 Too Confined -- 275 Assumed Paradigm -- 277 Natural Selection -- 280 Fossil Record -- 284 Punctuated Equilibria -- 285 Cambrian Explosion -- 286 Cladistics -- 287 Molecules and Change -- 288 Hoaxes and Assumptions Exposed -- 289 Evolution a Belief, Not a Science -- 290 Evolution as a Religion -- 291 Contribution of Cornelius Hunter -- 294 Impact on Values -- 299 Conclusion -- 301 Study Questions -- 302 Chapter Seven Evolution Questioned: Scientific Evaluation Introduction -- 305 Historical Background -- 306 Parmenides and Heraclitus (ca. 540-470 B.C.) -- 306 Plato (427-347 B.C.) -- 307 Aristotle (382-322 B.C.) -- 307 Stoicism (ca. 300 B.C.) -- 308 Epicurus (341—271 B.C.) -- 308 Epicurus Compared to Darwin -- 308 Darwin’s Origin of Species (1859) -- 311 Fixity of Species -- 312 -- 313 -- 314 -- 314 -- 314 Questions His Theory -- 316 Questions of Origin -- 317 Prebiotic Soup -- 317 Panspermia -- 318 Evaluation -- 321 Evolution—Fact or Theory? -- 322 Evolution—Fact or Fiction? -- 323 Evolution Questioned -- 324 Finite Universe and Entropy -- 324 Mutations Questioned -- 325 Embryo Similarities Questioned -- 327 Linear Descent Questioned -- 328 Development Theory Questioned -- 329 Deep-time Questioned: Too Short to Explain Biodiversity -- 329 Deep-time Questioned: Too Long to Explain the Continents -- 330 Faith Is Not Empirical Evidence -- 331 Evolution Slowing Down -- 332 Intelligent Design -- 333 Intelligent Design Confronts Non-science With Science -- 335 Purpose of Intelligent Design Argument -- 337 Science Questions Evolution -- 340 -- 340 -- 342 -- 343 -- 345 -- 347 Logic Questions Evolution -- 348 Function of DNA -- 349 Interventionist View -- 352 Conclusion -- 355 Study Questions -- 357 Chapter Eight Evolution Questioned: Global Flood Introduction -- 360 Biblical Record -- 361 Deluge -- 362 Biblical God -- 363 Noah in Flood Stories -- 364 Noah’s Ark -- 365 Denies Uniformitarianism -- 365 Claimed Evidence for Local Floods -- 366 Biblical Evidence for Global Flood -- 369 In Fairness to Geology -- 377 Geological Column -- 378 Catastrophe Revealed in Fossil Record -- 379 Rock Formation -- 384 Historical Evidence for Global Flood -- 385 Ark and Tabernacle -- 385 Protology and Eschatology -- 387 Two Beginnings -- 388 Conclusion -- 389 Study Questions -- 389 Section Introduction: Christ -- 391 Chapter Nine Redemption: Life, Death, Resurrection Introduction -- 396 God in Time -- 396 God As Trinity -- 399 Survey of New Testament Data -- 400 Recent Historical Understanding of Jesus -- 400 Two Ways to Study the Gospels -- 401 Matthew -- 401 Mark -- 404 Luke -- 406 John -- 410 Paul’s Cosmic Christ -- 412 Hebrews -- 413 Book of Revelation -- 414 In the Beginning -- 414 Divinity of Christ -- 415 Christ’s Coming Predicted -- 415 Salvation Within History: Prophecy and Fulfillment -- 417 Called “God” -- 418 Unique Relationship with God -- 419 The Humanity of Jesus -- 421 Shekinah Glory -- 421 Bridging the Gulf -- 423 Virgin Birth -- 424 Unique Nature -- 426 Son of Man -- 427 -- 428 -- 428 Second Adam -- 430 Incarnational Nature -- 431 Likeness of Sinful Flesh -- 432 -- 432 -- 432 -- 433 -- 433 Pre-fall or Post-fall? -- 434 Incarnational Mission -- 435 To Reveal God -- 436 To Experience Human Life -- 437 To Be an Example to Humans -- 439 To Die for Humans -- 440 To Defeat the Devil -- 440 To Be a Sinless Substitute -- 441 Incarnational Message -- 442 Kingdom of Heaven Is Near -- 442 Kingdom of Heaven Has Arrived -- 443 Kingdom of Heaven in Context -- 445 Incarnational Life -- 447 Kenōsis -- 448 Omnipresence -- 450 -- 451 -- 452 -- 452 Temptations -- 454 Christ’s Dependence on the Spirit -- 457 Spirit’s Dependence on Christ -- 458 Man of Sorrows -- 459 Christ’s Death: Unlimited Atonement -- 461 Sin for Us -- 465 Redemption-Resolution -- 466 Christ and the Grave -- 467 Resurrection -- 470 Empty Tomb -- 471 Bodily Resurrection -- 471 Importance of the Resurrection -- 472 Christ’s Continuing Revelation of God -- 473 Conclusion -- 477 Study Questions -- 477 Chapter Ten King-Priest Introduction -- 481 Throne of David -- 483 Psalm 110 -- 485 Present Rule of David -- 488 King-Priest: During the Final Day of Atonement -- 489 More Than Calvary -- 491 Christ at the Throne -- 492 First Phase: Redemption -- 493 Second Phase: Resolution -- 497 The Truth as It Is in Jesus -- 498 Pre-Advent Judgment -- 499 Opposed by Most Christians -- 500 Redemption and Restoration: Solving the Sin Problem -- 500 Contemporary Research: Two Ministries and Theodicy -- 502 Conclusion -- 506 Study Questions -- 507 Chapter Eleven Christ: History and Theology Introduction -- 511 Jewish Religious World -- 514 Christological Debates -- 515 Too Divine -- 515 -- 516 -- 517 -- 517 -- 518 -- 518 -- 518 -- 519 Too Human -- 519 -- 519 -- 520 -- 520 -- 521 Relationship of the Son to the Father -- 522 -- 522 -- 525 -- 525 Relation of Divine/Human -- 526 -- 526 -- 527 -- 528 Wrong Views of God -- 529 Christ Lived on Earth as God -- 530 Omnipresent -- 531 -- 531 -- 531 -- 532 -- 532 -- 532 -- 533 -- 533 Assumption of Humanity -- 533 -- 533 -- 534 Evaluation -- 534 Christ Considered to Be Too Human -- 536 Quests of the Historical Jesus -- 536 -- 538 -- 539 -- 540 -- 541 -- 546 Evaluation -- 546 Questing in Scripture -- 548 Conclusion -- 549 Study Questions -- 550 Appendix: Counterfeit Gospels -- 551 Nag Hammadi Texts -- 551 General Introduction -- 551 Compared to Dead Sea Scrolls -- 553 Gnosticism -- 554 Gospel of James -- 554 Evaluation -- 556 Infancy Gospel of Thomas -- 558 Evaluation Later Gospel of Thomas -- 560 Evaluation Detrimental Effect of the Gospel of Thomas -- 560 Evaluation -- 562 Conclusion -- 564 Section Introduction: Salvation -- 567 Chapter Twelve Salvation: Cosmic Implications -- 570 Introduction -- 570 Salvation in Scripture -- 572 Old Testament -- 573 -- 574 -- 576 -- 577 -- 579 -- 580 -- 581 -- 582 -- 584 -- 585 -- 586 New Testament -- 591 Cosmic Dimension of Salvation -- 595 Plan Precedes Creation -- 596 Plan Reaches into the Coming Ages -- 597 Conclusion -- 597 Study Questions -- 597 Chapter Thirteen Atonement Theories -- 601 Introdaction -- 602 Bsblical Balance -- 603 Propitiation -- 604 Redemption -- 605 Justification -- 605 Reconciliation -- 605 Different Perspectives -- 605 Recapitulation -- 605 Incarnation -- 606 Salvation as Completion of Creation -- 610 Ransom Theory -- 612 Moral Influence Theory -- 614 Forgiveness -- 614 Revelation -- 615 Does Forgiveness Require Christ’s Death? -- 618 Problem of Lawlessness -- 620 God’s Attributes: Justice and Mercy -- 622 The Cross as an Example -- 623 Substitutionary Theory -- 624 God’s Self-sacrifice -- 624 Meaning of Substitutionary -- 625 Corporate Atonement -- 626 Calvary Atonement -- 629 Did God Have Other Options? -- 636 Cross Centered -- 637 We Crucified Christ -- 637 Cosmic Controversy Worldview -- 638 Conclusion -- 640 Study Questions -- 640 Appendices -- 641 Appendix A: Brief History of Some Atonement Theories -- 641 -- 642 -- 642 -- 642 -- 643 -- 644 Appendix B: Theories of Atonement in Light of God’s Holiness and Human Sin Appendix C: Theories of the Atonement in Light of God’s Attributes -- 647 Appendix D: Nonviolent View of the Atonement -- 648 Appendix E: My Proposal—the Substitutionary and Cosmic Atonement View -- 650 Chapter Fourteen Salvation Applied: Work of the Holy Spirit Introduction -- 655 Focus on Christ -- 658 Jesus Christ Mediates Salvation -- 661 Salvation Available Throughout History -- 664 Christ’s Two Ministries -- 666 -- 666 Atonement on the Cross and in the Sanctuary -- 669 Holy Spirit Applies Salvation -- 671 Necessity of Human Freedom -- 672 Accomplished in Human History -- 674 Spirit as Enabler -- 675 Spirit as “Spirit of Christ” -- 678 Order of Salvation -- 682 Aspects of Salvation -- 686 Repentance -- 686 Belief/Faith -- 687 Baptism -- 689 Saving Relationship -- 693 -- 693 -- 695 -- 697 Good News of Salvation -- 699 Christian Living -- 701 Sanctification -- 702 Conclusion -- 705 Study Questions -- 705 Chapter Fifteen Salvation Debate: Augustine of Hippo to Council of Trent Introduction -- 709 Sub-Christian Theology -- 709 Gnosticism -- 709 Pelagianism -- 712 Catholic Theology: History Behind Medieval Church -- 715 Augustine of Hippo (354-430) -- 715 -- 717 -- 719 Medieval Church -- 719 Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) -- 720 -- 720 Orthodox Theology -- 726 Evaluation -- 728 Reformation Theology -- 731 Martin Luther (1483-1546) -- 733 Philipp Melanchthon (1497-1560) -- 738 John Calvin (1509-1564) -- 739 Andreas Osiander (1498—1552) -- 740 Justification from Eternity -- 741 Creeds -- 742 -- 742 -- 742 -- 742 Roman Response: Between Diet of Augsburg (1530) and Diet of Ratisbon (1541) -- 743 Counter Reformation: Council of Trent (1545-1563) -- 743 Evaluation -- 746 Conclusion -- 747 Study Questions -- 747 Chapter Sixteen Salvation Debate: Post-Tridentine to Contemporary Introduction -- 750 Debate -- 750 Biblical Understanding of Justification by Faith -- 752 Justification and Sanctification: Need to Be Distinguished, Not Divided. -- 757 Post-Tridentine Debate: Protestant -- 758 Francis Turretin (1623-1687) -- 758 Herman Bavinck (1854-1921) -- 760 Karl Barth (1886-1968) -- 761 Alister McGrath’s Assessment -- 763 Contribution of the New Perspectives on Paul Movement to Justification by Faith. -- 764 Biblical Understanding of Sanctification by Faith -- 768 Conclusion -- 769 Study Questions -- 771 Chapter Seventeen Roman-Protestant Divide: “Evangelicals and Catholics Together” Documents Introduction -- 775 World Council of Churches (WCC) (1948-2006) -- 775 Vatican Council II (1962—1965) -- 776 “Evangelical and Catholics Together” (ECT) Documents -- 778 ECT 1: The Christian Mission for the Third Millennium (1994) -- 779 ECT 2: The Gift of Salvation (1997) -- 780 ECT 3: Your Word in Truth (2002) -- 782 ECT 4: The Communion of Saints (2003) -- 783 “Legal Fiction” Issue -- 784 Catholics and Lutherans on Justification -- 787 Factors to Consider to Evaluate the Debate -- 792 Pope Benedict XVI on Justification -- 793 Is Trent Still Influential? -- 794 Beyond the ECT Declarations -- 796 Importance of Justification by Faith: Protestant Opinions -- 798 Why Protestants Have Changed Their Views -- 799 Conclusion -- 805 Study Questions -- 807 Name Index -- 809 Scripture Index -- 825 Subject Index -- 849 Abstract: Is it all really about Christ? Yes, says Norman R. Gulley resoundingly, in this third volume of his Systematic Theology. In another sweeping and yet incisive evaluation of Christian theology, this time focusing on the doctrines of creation, Christ, and salvation, Gulley drives home his overarching theme that Jesus Christ is the same yesterday and today and forever (Heb. 13:8), which impacts creation and re-creation (salvation). If we give up the supernatural reality of creation, what right have we to accept the other supernatural events throughout Scripture? This focus on Christ has profound implications for our understanding of origins and our relationship to the Word of God. As Gulley notes, The written Word of God is as unchangeable and authentic as the living Word of God. Belief in supernatural creation is as important as belief in supernatural Incarnation and supernatural salvation. For the biblically grounded Christian, it is impossible to accept the latter two without the first Thus, as Gulley says in the preface, this volume evaluates evolutionary theory as primarily a contemporary assumption that has led traditional theology to accept non-biblical ideas that are incompatible with the relational Trinity and with the biblical creation narrative. As creation was in a specified time, so Christ came in time and in flesh as God s revelation to humanity. The salvation He embodies for humanity occurs in time in His life, His death, His resurrection and ascension, and His ministry now in the heavenly sanctuary. Throughout, as in the previous volumes, Gulley engages deeply and thoughtfully with other views on all these topics, and critiques them always against his basic credo of tota, prima, and sola scriptura..Subject - Topical Name: Creationism | Evolution | Salvation -- Christianity | Theology, Doctrinal Item type: Книги
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Бібліотека Українського Гуманітарного Інституту
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230.1 / G93 (Browse shelf (Opens below)) Available (Немає обмежень доступу) 41683-002118

Includes bibliographhical references and indexes.

Preface xxi Acknowledgments xxiv Section Introduction: Creation 1 Chapter one Planet Earth and Its Heavens Introduction 5 Trinity 5 Biblical Chiasm 7 Importance of Logical Consistency 8 How Did God Create? 9 Supernatural Creation 10 Historical 14 Universal 16 Independent of ANE Texts 16 Cosmic Controversy 18 The Genesis Creation 18 In the Beginning 18 How Genesis 1:1 Is Interpreted 19 The Gap Theory 22 General Comments 22 How the Gap Theory Is Interpreted 25 Is the Gap Theory Biblical? 26 Tentative Evaluation 30 Creatio Ex Nihilo Opposed 31 Creatio Ex Nihilo Is Biblical 33 Matter Is Not Eternal 36 Creative Commands 37 Literary Framework Hypothesis 38 Contribution of the Hebrew Waw Consecutive 43 Creation and Time 43 Instantaneous 44 One Thousand Years 45 Day-Ages 46 Revelatory Days 46 Twenty-Four-Hour Days 47 Biblical Use of the Hebrew word for Day (yôm) 47 Day Seven: Literal or Not? 50 Scholars Supporting Literal Creation Days 51 Culture Impacting Theology 53 Acts of Christ in History Provide Support for Literal Creation Days. 55 Creation Record Not to Be Relegated to the Nonliteral (Spiritual) Level of Knowledge 56 Climax of Creation 56 Creation in Scripture 63 Christ and Creation 63 Job/Psalms 68 Ecclesiastes 69 Isaiah 69 Jeremiah 70 Nehemiah 71 New Testament 71 Greatest Evidence for Creation 73 Conclusion 74 Study Questions 75 Chapter Two Human Creation and Nature Introduction 79 Creation of Adam and Eve 81 Cosmic Context 81 Creation 82 Created in the Image of God 84 Image of the Trinity 87 Image as Dominion 88 Image as Physical 90 Image as Character 91 Image as Communion 92 Image as Freedom to Choose 92 Image Remains 93 Subordination Debate 95 Importance of Ecology: In a Theological System 97 Introduction 97 Ecological Theology 99 Theology of Nature 101 Contribution of Science 103 Ecology as Part of Creation 103 Ecological Crisis 105 Texts Demonstrating the Importance of Ecology to God 107 Solidarity of All Races 108 Created Wholistically 109 Humans as Living Souls 111 Is the Soul Immortal? 113 Nonbiblical View of Souls 116 Nonbiblical View of Death 117 Expulsion from Eden 119 No Intermediate State 120 Great Counterfeit 122 After-Death Apparitions 124 God Opposes Spiritism 125 Corporate Victory over Death 125 Some Humans in Heaven 126 Conclusion 128 Study Questions 129 Chapter Three Human Fall and Nature Introduction 133 Structure of Genesis 1-3 134 Fall of Humans 134 Cosmic Controversy Context 136 Method of Temptation 137 Purpose of Temptation 139 Infallible Evidence 140 Effects of Sin on Adam and Eve 142 Damaged Image of God 145 Total Depravity and the Image of God 146 What Total Depravity Means 146 What Conscience Does to the Damaged Image of God 149 Why the New Birth Is So Vital 150 What Nature Does to the Damaged Image of God 151 Conclusion 152 God and Evil 152 Sin Defined 155 Sin as Absence of Good 155 Sin as an Act 156 Sin as More than an Act 156 Immediate Roots 156 Tendency to Sin 157 Separation from God 158 Two Adams Compared 159 Self-Centered Sinners at Birth 162 Theories of Imputation 163 Pelagian Theory 163 Arminian Theory 164 New School Theory 164 Federal Theory 164 Mediate Imputation Theory 165 Augustinian Theory 165 Summary of Theories 166 Evaluation 167 Conclusion 167 Study Questions 167 Chapter Four Darwin’s Journey from Scripture to Philosophy Introduction 170 Evolution’s Attempt to Explain Evil 171 Darwin’s Turn from Scripture to Other Books 174 Influence from John Milton 174 How Theologians Viewed Nature 175 Influenced by Sir Charles Lyell 176 Influenced by Thomas Malthus 176 Kant and the Problem with Distancing God from Nature 177 Conclusion 178 Study Questions 178 Chapter Five Theistic Evolution: The Quest for Reconciliation Introduction 181 Are There Two Reconciliable Worldviews? 182 My Presuppositions 183 My General Understanding of Evolution 184 In Which Worldview Shall We Live? 186 Science Indebted to Scripture 188 Early Scientists Were Creationists 189 Working with Scripture without Compromise: Examples of How to Work with Two Worldviews 189 Ian G. Barbour (1923- ) 191 The Integration of Creation and Evolution 193 Evaluation 194 Attempts to Reconcile Biblical Creation and Evolution 195 Background 195 Gordon D. Kaufman (1925-2011) 197 Evaluation 197 Howard J. Van Till (1938- ) 197 Evaluation 198 Keith Ward (1938- ) 199 Evaluation 201 Keith B. Miller 202 Evaluation 203 Arthur Peacocke (1924-2006) 204 Evaluation 208 Ted Peters and Martinez Hewlett 209 Evaluation 209 John C. Polkinghorne (1930- ) 212 Evaluation 214 Francis Collins (1950- ) 215 Evaluation 217 Evaluation of an Unofficial Adventist Integration Thesis 218 Catholic Integration Thesis 225 Evaluation 225 National Geographic Integration Thesis 226 Evaluation 226 General Evaluation of Theistic Evolutionists 226 Theistic Evolutionists with Greater Belief in Scripture 227 Evangelicals: Scripture Inerrant or Not? 230 Creation Week Questioned 230 Origin of Death Questioned 231 Plan of Salvation Questioned 232 Biblical God Questioned 233 Christ’s Spoken Word Questioned 237 Christ’s Sabbath Questioned 239 Theistic Evolution Questioned 240 Limits of Science 243 Evaluation 244 Meaning Different from Facts/Knowledge 246 Evaluation 246 God’s Urgent End-Time Challenge 246 Conclusion 250 Study Questions 252 Appendix: Theodicy of William Dembski (2009) 252 Chapter Six Evolution Questioned: General Evaluation Introduction 260 Evolutionary Claims 260 Darwinism 261 Influential Worldview 264 Causation in Nature 267 Descent or Design: Things to Consider 269 Evolutionary Research 272 Philosophical Assumptions 272 Too Confined 275 Assumed Paradigm 277 Natural Selection 280 Fossil Record 284 Punctuated Equilibria 285 Cambrian Explosion 286 Cladistics 287 Molecules and Change 288 Hoaxes and Assumptions Exposed 289 Evolution a Belief, Not a Science 290 Evolution as a Religion 291 Contribution of Cornelius Hunter 294 Impact on Values 299 Conclusion 301 Study Questions 302 Chapter Seven Evolution Questioned: Scientific Evaluation Introduction 305 Historical Background 306 Parmenides and Heraclitus (ca. 540-470 B.C.) 306 Plato (427-347 B.C.) 307 Aristotle (382-322 B.C.) 307 Stoicism (ca. 300 B.C.) 308 Epicurus (341—271 B.C.) 308 Epicurus Compared to Darwin 308 Darwin’s Origin of Species (1859) 311 Fixity of Species 312 Genesis 1 313 Genesis 6 and 7 314 Leviticus 11 314 Deuteronomy 14 314 Questions His Theory 316 Questions of Origin 317 Prebiotic Soup 317 Panspermia 318 Evaluation 321 Evolution—Fact or Theory? 322 Evolution—Fact or Fiction? 323 Evolution Questioned 324 Finite Universe and Entropy 324 Mutations Questioned 325 Embryo Similarities Questioned 327 Linear Descent Questioned 328 Development Theory Questioned 329 Deep-time Questioned: Too Short to Explain Biodiversity 329 Deep-time Questioned: Too Long to Explain the Continents 330 Faith Is Not Empirical Evidence 331 Evolution Slowing Down 332 Intelligent Design 333 Intelligent Design Confronts Non-science With Science 335 Purpose of Intelligent Design Argument 337 Science Questions Evolution 340 Complexity of Eyes 340 Complexity of Cells 342 Irreducible Complexity 343 Specified Complexity 345 Functional Complexity 347 Logic Questions Evolution 348 Function of DNA 349 Interventionist View 352 Conclusion 355 Study Questions 357 Chapter Eight Evolution Questioned: Global Flood Introduction 360 Biblical Record 361 Deluge 362 Biblical God 363 Noah in Flood Stories 364 Noah’s Ark 365 Denies Uniformitarianism 365 Claimed Evidence for Local Floods 366 Biblical Evidence for Global Flood 369 In Fairness to Geology 377 Geological Column 378 Catastrophe Revealed in Fossil Record 379 Rock Formation 384 Historical Evidence for Global Flood 385 Ark and Tabernacle 385 Protology and Eschatology 387 Two Beginnings 388 Conclusion 389 Study Questions 389 Section Introduction: Christ 391 Chapter Nine Redemption: Life, Death, Resurrection Introduction 396 God in Time 396 God As Trinity 399 Survey of New Testament Data 400 Recent Historical Understanding of Jesus 400 Two Ways to Study the Gospels 401 Matthew 401 Mark 404 Luke 406 John 410 Paul’s Cosmic Christ 412 Hebrews 413 Book of Revelation 414 In the Beginning 414 Divinity of Christ 415 Christ’s Coming Predicted 415 Salvation Within History: Prophecy and Fulfillment 417 Called “God” 418 Unique Relationship with God 419 The Humanity of Jesus 421 Shekinah Glory 421 Bridging the Gulf 423 Virgin Birth 424 Unique Nature 426 Son of Man 427 Her Immaculate Conception 428 His Immaculate Conception 428 Second Adam 430 Incarnational Nature 431 Likeness of Sinful Flesh 432 Christ’s Humanity Like Ours 432 Christ’s Humanity Unlike Ours 432 Christ’s Humanity Like and Unlike Ours 433 Christ’s Birth Like Our New Birth? 433 Pre-fall or Post-fall? 434 Incarnational Mission 435 To Reveal God 436 To Experience Human Life 437 To Be an Example to Humans 439 To Die for Humans 440 To Defeat the Devil 440 To Be a Sinless Substitute 441 Incarnational Message 442 Kingdom of Heaven Is Near 442 Kingdom of Heaven Has Arrived 443 Kingdom of Heaven in Context 445 Incarnational Life 447 Kenōsis 448 Omnipresence 450 Holy Spirit’s Ministry on Earth 451 Christ’s Global Rule 452 Christ’s Universal Presence 452 Temptations 454 Christ’s Dependence on the Spirit 457 Spirit’s Dependence on Christ 458 Man of Sorrows 459 Christ’s Death: Unlimited Atonement 461 Sin for Us 465 Redemption-Resolution 466 Christ and the Grave 467 Resurrection 470 Empty Tomb 471 Bodily Resurrection 471 Importance of the Resurrection 472 Christ’s Continuing Revelation of God 473 Conclusion 477 Study Questions 477 Chapter Ten King-Priest Introduction 481 Throne of David 483 Psalm 110 485 Present Rule of David 488 King-Priest: During the Final Day of Atonement 489 More Than Calvary 491 Christ at the Throne 492 First Phase: Redemption 493 Second Phase: Resolution 497 The Truth as It Is in Jesus 498 Pre-Advent Judgment 499 Opposed by Most Christians 500 Redemption and Restoration: Solving the Sin Problem 500 Contemporary Research: Two Ministries and Theodicy 502 Conclusion 506 Study Questions 507 Chapter Eleven Christ: History and Theology Introduction 511 Jewish Religious World 514 Christological Debates 515 Too Divine 515 Modalistic Monarchianism 516 Monophysitism 517 Docedsm 517 Apthartodocetism 518 Nestorianism 518 Eutychianism 518 Apollinarianism 519 Too Human 519 Dynamic Monarchianism 519 Ebionitism 520 Gnosticism 520 Arianism 521 Socinianism Relationship of the Son to the Father 522 Council of Nicaea (325) 522 The Cappadocians (Fourth Century) 525 Conclusion 525 Relation of Divine/Human 526 Eastern Dominance in Councils 526 Success of Nicaea-Chalcedon 527 Failure of Nicaea-Chalcedon 528 Wrong Views of God 529 Christ Lived on Earth as God 530 Omnipresent 531 Origen (ca. 185—254) 531 Athanasius (293—373) 531 Augustine of Hippo (354—430) 532 Cyril of Alexandria (376—444) 532 Leo the Great (400-461), Pope from 440-461 (Western Church) 532 John Calvin (1509-1564) 533 William G. T. Shedd (1820-1894) 533 Assumption of Humanity 533 Hilary of Poitiers (300—367) 533 Gregory of Nazianzus (ca. 330-389) 534 Evaluation 534 Christ Considered to Be Too Human 536 Quests of the Historical Jesus 536 H. S. Reimarus (1694—1768) 538 Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965) 539 Karl Barth (1886-1968) 540 N.T. Wright (1948- ) 541 Jesus Seminar 546 Evaluation 546 Questing in Scripture 548 Conclusion 549 Study Questions 550 Appendix: Counterfeit Gospels 551 Nag Hammadi Texts 551 General Introduction 551 Compared to Dead Sea Scrolls 553 Gnosticism 554 Gospel of James 554 Evaluation 556 Infancy Gospel of Thomas 558 Evaluation Later Gospel of Thomas 560 Evaluation Detrimental Effect of the Gospel of Thomas 560 Evaluation 562 Conclusion 564 Section Introduction: Salvation 567 Chapter Twelve Salvation: Cosmic Implications 570 Introduction 570 Salvation in Scripture 572 Old Testament 573 Exodus Salvation 574 Redemption in the Wilderness 576 Salvation Context at Sinai 577 Perspective Is Crucial 579 Sanctuary: God’s Dwelling with Humans 580 Sanctuary Sacrifices and Services 581 David 582 Isaiah 584 Exodus Story Used for Judah in Babylon 585 Micah 586 New Testament 591 Cosmic Dimension of Salvation 595 Plan Precedes Creation 596 Plan Reaches into the Coming Ages 597 Conclusion 597 Study Questions 597 Chapter Thirteen Atonement Theories 601 Introdaction 602 Bsblical Balance 603 Propitiation 604 Redemption 605 Justification 605 Reconciliation 605 Different Perspectives 605 Recapitulation 605 Incarnation 606 Salvation as Completion of Creation 610 Ransom Theory 612 Moral Influence Theory 614 Forgiveness 614 Revelation 615 Does Forgiveness Require Christ’s Death? 618 Problem of Lawlessness 620 God’s Attributes: Justice and Mercy 622 The Cross as an Example 623 Substitutionary Theory 624 God’s Self-sacrifice 624 Meaning of Substitutionary 625 Corporate Atonement 626 Calvary Atonement 629 Did God Have Other Options? 636 Cross Centered 637 We Crucified Christ 637 Cosmic Controversy Worldview 638 Conclusion 640 Study Questions 640 Appendices 641 Appendix A: Brief History of Some Atonement Theories 641 Church Fathers 642 Middle Ages 642 Reformers 642 Nineteenth Century 643 Twentieth Century 644 Appendix B: Theories of Atonement in Light of God’s Holiness and Human Sin Appendix C: Theories of the Atonement in Light of God’s Attributes 647 Appendix D: Nonviolent View of the Atonement 648 Appendix E: My Proposal—the Substitutionary and Cosmic Atonement View 650 Chapter Fourteen Salvation Applied: Work of the Holy Spirit Introduction 655 Focus on Christ 658 Jesus Christ Mediates Salvation 661 Salvation Available Throughout History 664 Christ’s Two Ministries 666 Christ’s Better Ministry 666 Atonement on the Cross and in the Sanctuary 669 Holy Spirit Applies Salvation 671 Necessity of Human Freedom 672 Accomplished in Human History 674 Spirit as Enabler 675 Spirit as “Spirit of Christ” 678 Order of Salvation 682 Aspects of Salvation 686 Repentance 686 Belief/Faith 687 Baptism 689 Saving Relationship 693 Focus on Christ 693 Focus on Christ in Heaven’s Sanctuary 695 Focus on Remaining in Christ 697 Good News of Salvation 699 Christian Living 701 Sanctification 702 Conclusion 705 Study Questions 705 Chapter Fifteen Salvation Debate: Augustine of Hippo to Council of Trent Introduction 709 Sub-Christian Theology 709 Gnosticism 709 Pelagianism 712 Catholic Theology: History Behind Medieval Church 715 Augustine of Hippo (354-430) 715 Enchiridion 717 Second Council of Orange (529) 719 Medieval Church 719 Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) 720 Summa Theologica 720 Orthodox Theology 726 Evaluation 728 Reformation Theology 731 Martin Luther (1483-1546) 733 Philipp Melanchthon (1497-1560) 738 John Calvin (1509-1564) 739 Andreas Osiander (1498—1552) 740 Justification from Eternity 741 Creeds 742 Augsburg Confession (1530) 742 Articles of Smalcald (1537) 742 Formula of Concord (1577) 742 Roman Response: Between Diet of Augsburg (1530) and Diet of Ratisbon (1541) 743 Counter Reformation: Council of Trent (1545-1563) 743 Evaluation 746 Conclusion 747 Study Questions 747 Chapter Sixteen Salvation Debate: Post-Tridentine to Contemporary Introduction 750 Debate 750 Biblical Understanding of Justification by Faith 752 Justification and Sanctification: Need to Be Distinguished, Not Divided. 757 Post-Tridentine Debate: Protestant 758 Francis Turretin (1623-1687) 758 Herman Bavinck (1854-1921) 760 Karl Barth (1886-1968) 761 Alister McGrath’s Assessment 763 Contribution of the New Perspectives on Paul Movement to Justification by Faith. 764 Biblical Understanding of Sanctification by Faith 768 Conclusion 769 Study Questions 771 Chapter Seventeen Roman-Protestant Divide: “Evangelicals and Catholics Together” Documents Introduction 775 World Council of Churches (WCC) (1948-2006) 775 Vatican Council II (1962—1965) 776 “Evangelical and Catholics Together” (ECT) Documents 778 ECT 1: The Christian Mission for the Third Millennium (1994) 779 ECT 2: The Gift of Salvation (1997) 780 ECT 3: Your Word in Truth (2002) 782 ECT 4: The Communion of Saints (2003) 783 “Legal Fiction” Issue 784 Catholics and Lutherans on Justification 787 Factors to Consider to Evaluate the Debate 792 Pope Benedict XVI on Justification 793 Is Trent Still Influential? 794 Beyond the ECT Declarations 796 Importance of Justification by Faith: Protestant Opinions 798 Why Protestants Have Changed Their Views 799 Conclusion 805 Study Questions 807 Name Index 809 Scripture Index 825 Subject Index 849

Is it all really about Christ? Yes, says Norman R. Gulley resoundingly, in this third volume of his Systematic Theology. In another sweeping and yet incisive evaluation of Christian theology, this time focusing on the doctrines of creation, Christ, and salvation, Gulley drives home his overarching theme that Jesus Christ is the same yesterday and today and forever (Heb. 13:8), which impacts creation and re-creation (salvation). If we give up the supernatural reality of creation, what right have we to accept the other supernatural events throughout Scripture? This focus on Christ has profound implications for our understanding of origins and our relationship to the Word of God. As Gulley notes, The written Word of God is as unchangeable and authentic as the living Word of God. Belief in supernatural creation is as important as belief in supernatural Incarnation and supernatural salvation. For the biblically grounded Christian, it is impossible to accept the latter two without the first Thus, as Gulley says in the preface, this volume evaluates evolutionary theory as primarily a contemporary assumption that has led traditional theology to accept non-biblical ideas that are incompatible with the relational Trinity and with the biblical creation narrative. As creation was in a specified time, so Christ came in time and in flesh as God s revelation to humanity. The salvation He embodies for humanity occurs in time in His life, His death, His resurrection and ascension, and His ministry now in the heavenly sanctuary. Throughout, as in the previous volumes, Gulley engages deeply and thoughtfully with other views on all these topics, and critiques them always against his basic credo of tota, prima, and sola scriptura.

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