Systematic theology / Norman R. Gulley, Vol. II, God as trinity

Main Author: Gulley, N. R., 1933-, Norman R.Language: англійська.Country: СПОЛУЧЕНІ ШТАТИ АМЕРИКИ.Publication: Berrien Springs, Mich. : Andrews University Press, ©2011Description: xxx, 676 p. ; 24 cmISBN: 978-1-883925-69-7.Dewey: 231/.044, 23Contents note: Preface -- xix Acknowledgments -- xxiv God As Trinity -- xxv Chapter One God’s Eternal Relationship: Trinity I. Introduction -- 3 A. Relational Trinity -- 3 B. Relational Trinity throughout the System -- 5 C. Replacement of Distortions about God -- 6 II. Scripture’s Revelation of the Persons in the Relational Trinity -- 8 A. The Father -- 8 -- 8 -- 9 B. The Son -- 10 -- 10 -- 12 -- 12 -- 13 -- 13 -- 14 -- 14 -- 15 C. The Spirit -- 16 -- 16 -- 16 -- 18 -- 19 -- 19 D. Trinity: First Doctrine Explored -- 19 III. Old Testament Evidence for the Relational Trinity -- 22 A. The Shema Does Not Preclude Plurality -- 23 B. Evidence for Divine Plurality -- 24 C. Explicit Trinity -- 26 -- 26 D. Conclusion -- 28 IV. New Testament Evidence for the Relational Trinity -- 29 A. Christ Reveals the Trinity -- 30 B. Trinity in the Epistles -- 30 V. Conclusion -- 32 VI. Study Questions -- 32 VII. Appendices -- 33 Appendix 1: Additional Notes on Greek Grammar -- 33 -- 33 -- 34 Appendix 2: The Christ of Jehovah’s Witnesses -- 37 Appendix 3: The God of Islam -- 39 Chapter Two God’s Eternal Relationship: Nature and Attributes I. Introduction -- 43 II. Nature of God -- 43 A. Debate on God’s Love -- 43 B. Importance of Freedom -- 45 C. God’s Holy Love: During the Sin Problem -- 46 D. Christ’s Holy Love: At Calvary -- 48 E. “God Is Love”: Relational Trinity -- 49 F. How We Know God Is Love -- 51 III. Names of God -- 53 IV. Descriptions of God -- 56 A. Descriptions of God’s Physical Characteristics -- 57 B. Descriptions of God’s Emotions -- 58 C. Descriptions of God's Acts -- 59 D. Descriptions of God’s Occupations -- 60 E. Metaphorical Descriptions of God -- 60 V. Attributes of God -- 60 A. Incommunicable Attributes: Self-Existence -- 66 -- 67 -- 68 -- 70 -- 70 -- 71 -- 72 B. Communicable Attributes: Self-Impartation -- 73 -- 74 -- 75 VI. Conclusion -- 77 VII. Study Questions -- 77 Chapter Three God’s Eternal Relationship: Early Patristic Views I. Introduction -- 81 II. Historical Overview of Anti-Trinitarian Views -- 83 A. Monarchianism -- 83 B. Arianism -- 84 III. Historical Overview of Trinitarian Views -- 84 IV. The Role of Proverbs 8:22 -- 85 V. Pre-Nicene Fathers -- 87 A. Justin Martyr (ca. 100-165) -- 87 B. Irenaeus (120-202) -- 88 -- 90 C. Tertullian (145-220) -- 91 -- 93 D. Origen (ca. 185-254) -- 94 -- 96 E. Novatian (ca. 210-280) -- 96 -- 98 VI. Council of Nicaea -- 99 VII. Post-Nicene Fathers -- 102 A. Hilary of Poitiers (ca. 300-367) -- 103 -- 105 B. Athanasius (293-373) -- 105 -- 109 C. Basil the Great of Caesarea (ca. 330-379) -- 111 D. Gregory of Nazianzus (ca. 330-389) -- 112 -- 114 E. Gregory of Nyssa (ca. 335-395) -- 115 -- 116 F. Augustine of Hippo (354-430) -- 117 -- 118 VIII. Where Is the Unity of God Found among the Trinity? -- 120 IX. Biblical Definition of “Firstborn” and “Only Begotten” in Reference to Christ as Son of the Father -- 121 A. Firstborn of Creation -- 122 B. Only Begotten -- 128 X. Comparison of the Trinity in Eternity and the Trinity in Salvation History -- 129 XI. Co-Inherence -- 130 XII. Trinitarian Relations: Perichoresis Examined -- 131 XIII. Conclusion -- 134 XIV. Study Questions -- 135 XV. Appendix: Filioque Debate -- 135 Chapter Four God’s Eternal Relationship: Trinitarian Covenant I. Introduction -- 140 II. Trinitarian Covenant -- 141 III. Functional Subordination -- 142 IV. Subordination as Revelation of Love -- 148 V. Impact of Subordination on Other Doctrines -- 149 VI. End of Functional Subordination -- 150 VII. Progressive Steps in the Exaltation of Jesus Christ through Time -- 156 A. Trinitarian Relations -- 156 VIII. Conclusion -- 158 IX. Study Questions -- 158 X. Appendix: The God of Human Construction -- 158 Chapter Five God’s Eternal Relationship: Timeless and Spaceless God I. Introduction -- 166 II. How Believing in a Timeless God Affects Biblical Doctrines -- 168 A. Doctrine of Revelation (Prolegomena) -- 168 B. Doctrine of God (Theology) -- 168 C. Doctrine of Creation (Anthropology) -- 169 D. Doctrine of Christ (Christology) -- 170 E. Doctrine of Salvation (Soteriology) -- 171 F. Doctrine of the Church (Ecclesiology) -- 172 -- 172 III. Biblical View of God -- 174 A. Eternal -- 174 B. Acts in Time -- 177 C. Incarnational Insight -- 178 D. Future -- 179 IV. Timeless God of Philosophy -- 179 A. Historic Positions -- 179 -- 180 -- 181 B. Modern Positions -- 182 -- 182 -- 183 V. Timeless God of Theology -- 184 A. Historic Positions -- 185 -- 185 -- 186 -- 187 B. Modern Positions -- 188 -- 188 -- 189 -- 189 -- 189 -- 190 -- 191 C. Evaluation -- 192 VI. Timeless and Temporal God of Theology -- 193 A. Herman Bavinck (1854—1921) -- 193 B. Karl Barth (1886-1968) -- 194 C. Thomas F. Torrance (1913—2007) -- 198 D. John Frame (1939—) -- 199 VII. Relatively Timeless God of Theology -- 201 A. Alan Padgett (1955—) -- 201 VIII. Supertemporal God of Theology -- 202 A. Millard J. Erikson (1932-) -- 202 IX. Temporal God of Theology -- 206 A. Paul Tillich (1886-1965) -- 206 B. Wolfhart Pannenberg (1928-) -- 207 C. Oscar Cullmann (1902—1999) -- 207 D. John Feinberg (1946-) -- 208 E. Robert W. Jenson (1958-) -- 209 X. Infinite Time as a Theological Term -- 210 A. Newton (1643-1727) and Einstein (1879-1955) -- 210 XI. Spaceless God -- 212 XII. Conclusion -- 213 XIII. Study Questions -- 213 Chapter Six God’s Eternal Relationship: Classical Views I. Introduction -- 216 II. Immutable and Impassible Views of God -- 217 III. Greek Origins of the Classical View -- 219 A. Plato (428-ca. 347 b.c.) -- 220 B. Aristotle (384-322 b.c.) -- 222 C. The Jew Philo: Impacted by Plato, Impacted Christian Theology (ca. 20 b.c.-a.d. 50) -- 223 IV. Conclusion -- 224 V. Study Questions -- 225 VI. Appendix: Debate on the Influence of Greek Philosophy on Classical Theism -- 225 A. Negative Influence -- 225 B. Positive Influence -- 227 Chapter Seven God’s Eternal Relationship: Contemporary Views I. Introduction -- 231 II. Philosophical and Theological Roots of Process and Openness Theology -- 232 A. Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947) -- 232 B. Charles Hartshorne (1897—2000) -- 236 III. Process Theology -- 237 A. Evaluation: Process Theology as Threat to Christianity -- 240 IV. Openness View of God -- 242 A. Compared to the Process View of God -- 242 B. Clark Pinnock -- 243 -- 243 -- 245 -- 247 C. Richard Rice -- 250 -- 250 -- 252 -- 254 -- 256 -- 258 D. Does Scripture Support a Process or an Openness View? -- 259 -- 261 -- 263 -- 264 E. Does Biblical Literalism Sometimes Have Problems? -- 268 F. New Paradigm Needed -- 269 V. Conclusion -- 271 VI. Study Questions -- 272 Chapter Eight God’s Plan: Redemption and Restoration I. Introduction -- 274 II. God’s Redemption-Restoration Plan -- 275 III. God’s Plan Is Christ Centered -- 276 IV. Creator of the Universe -- 277 V. Creation of Angels -- 278 VI. God Appears as an Angel to Humans -- 279 VII. Christ’s Mediation Plan -- 281 VIII. Cosmic Controversy Paradigm -- 284 IX. Rebellion in Heaven: Satan’s Contrary Plan -- 285 A. Broken Law -- 285 B. Broken Relationship -- 285 X. Biblical Overview of the Controversy -- 286 A. What Understanding God in the Context of the Controversy Teaches Us -- 288 B. Final Judgment and Calvary -- 290 C. Selfishness and Self-Sacrificing Love -- 292 D. Satan Distorts the Truth about God -- 293 XI. Creation of Humans -- 293 XII. Providence for Humans -- 294 XIII. Redemption Plan -- 295 XIV. God’s Restoration Plan: Its Implications for Hell -- 298 XV. God’s Sovereignty Defined: By the Cosmic Controversy -- 305 XVI. Conclusion -- 307 XVII. Study Questions -- 308 Chapter Nine God’s Plan: Covenant—Creation through to Israel I. Introduction -- 310 II. God’s Covenant: Relational, Not Contractual -- 311 III. Everlasting Covenant -- 313 IV. Early Covenant Examples -- 314 V. Covenant with Noah -- 315 VI. Covenant with Abraham -- 316 VII. Covenant Renewed to Israel as a Nation -- 316 VIII. Covenant Repeated at Mount Sinai -- 317 IX. Covenant Conditions Given to Moses -- 318 A. How a Covenant Relationship Can Be Lost -- 320 B. How a Covenant Relationship Can Remain -- 322 X. Conclusion -- 322 XI. Study Questions -- 322 Chapter Ten God’s Plan: the Covenant—Solomon through to Judah I. Introduction -- 324 II. Solomon’s Kingdom Divided -- 326 III. Kings of Israel and Judah -- 327 IV. God’s Covenant Plan -- 329 V. Covenant Plan for Post-Exilic Judah -- 329 A. Return to Homeland -- 329 B. Return to Covenant Relationship -- 330 C. Predictive Prophecy as Incentive -- 331 D. Prophecy as Conditional -- 332 E. What Might Have Been -- 334 VI. Conclusion -- 336 VII. Study Questions -- 336 Chapter Eleven God’s Plan: Old and New Covenants I. Introduction -- 339 XI. Creation of Humans -- 293 XII. Providence for Humans -- 294 XIII. Redemption Plan -- 295 XIV. God’s Restoration Plan: Its Implications for Hell -- 298 XV. God’s Sovereignty Defined: By the Cosmic Controversy -- 305 XVI. Conclusion -- 307 XVII. Study Questions -- 308 Chapter Nine God’s Plan: Covenant—Creation through to Israel I. Introduction -- 310 II. God’s Covenant: Relational, Not Contractual -- 311 III. Everlasting Covenant -- 313 IV. Early Covenant Examples -- 314 V. Covenant with Noah -- 315 VI. Covenant with Abraham -- 316 VII. Covenant Renewed to Israel as a Nation -- 316 VIII. Covenant Repeated at Mount Sinai -- 317 IX. Covenant Conditions Given to Moses -- 318 A. How a Covenant Relationship Can Be Lost -- 320 B. How a Covenant Relationship Can Remain -- 322 X. Conclusion -- 322 XI. Study Questions -- 322 Chapter Ten God’s Plan: the Covenant—Solomon through to Judah I. Introduction -- 324 II. Solomon’s Kingdom Divided -- 326 III. Kings of Israel and Judah -- 327 IV. God’s Covenant Plan -- 329 V. Covenant Plan for Post-Exilic Judah -- 329 A. Return to Homeland -- 329 B. Return to Covenant Relationship -- 330 C. Predictive Prophecy as Incentive -- 331 D. Prophecy as Conditional -- 332 E. What Might Have Been -- 334 VI. Conclusion -- 336 VII. Study Questions -- 336 Chapter Eleven God’s Plan: Old and New Covenants I. Introduction -- 339 II. Does God Change? -- 339 A. What Preceded Sinai -- 341 B. What Happened at Sinai -- 343 C. What Happened After Sinai -- 346 D. God’s Self-Description as Lawgiver at Sinai -- 346 III. Is the Sinai Covenant Obsolete? -- 349 IV. Marriage Metaphor -- 352 V. The Grace of God in Deuteronomy -- 356 VI. New Covenant -- 358 A. New as Renewal -- 358 B. Law Continues -- 363 VII. How to Interpret Covenant Passages -- 363 A. Paul’s Only Concern with the Sinai Covenant -- 364 -- 364 -- 365 B. More than Historical Periods -- 368 -- 369 -- 372 C. Old and New Covenants Embrace the Same Gospel -- 374 -- 374 -- 375 -- 375 -- 376 VIII. Same Relational God in Both Covenants -- 376 IX. Conclusion -- 377 X. Study Questions -- 378 Chapter Twelve God’s Plan: Contemporary Challenges I. Introduction -- 381 II. New Perspectives on Paul -- 382 A. E. P. Sanders -- 385 -- 385 -- 388 B. N. T. Wright -- 389 -- 389 -- 390 -- 391 -- 393 -- 395 -- 397 C. James D. G. Dunn -- 398 -- 398 -- 399 -- 400 -- 401 D. Narrative Dimension of NPP: Beyond Sanders and Dunn -- 402 -- 403 E. Scholarly Questioning of NPP -- 404 III. New Covenant Theology: Presentation and Evaluation -- 406 IV. Federal Vision: Presentation and Evaluation -- 409 V. Conclusion -- 410 VI. Study Questions -- 412 Chapter Thirteen God’s Plan: Problem Texts I. Introduction -- 416 II. Texts for Consideration -- 417 A. General Background: Corinthians and Galatians -- 417 B. 2 Corinthians 3:6—8 -- 420 C. 2 Corinthians 3:14 -- 421 D. Galatians 3:19-25 -- 423 -- 427 E. Galatians 4:24—26 -- 428 F. Hebrews 8:6—10 -- 430 III. Comments on Covenants and the Law -- 432 IV. Christ’s Contribution -- 433 V. One Gospel -- 434 VI. God’s Everlasting Covenant and Everlasting Gospel -- 435 VII. Conclusion -- 435 VIII. Study Questions -- 436 Chapter Fourteen God’s Plan: Unfolded in the Sanctuary I. Introduction -- 439 II. Sanctuary for Sinners -- 439 III. Sanctuary System -- 441 A. Not Based on Philosophy -- 441 B. Importance of Divine Specifications -- 443 C. Post-Exilic Temple Specifications -- 445 D. Reveals Universal Gospel -- 446 E. God’s Laws and the Sanctuary -- 448 F. System Described -- 448 -- 449 -- 451 -- 452 -- 453 -- 454 G. Largely Neglected -- 458 H. Christ’s Two-Phased Ministry -- 458 IV. Conclusion -- 463 V. Study Questions -- 464 Chapter Fifteen God’s Plan: Proponents of Predestination I. Introduction -- 468 II. Augustine of Hippo (354-430) -- 469 A. Rejection of Human Freedom -- 471 B. Dualism in God -- 472 III. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) -- 473 A. Reprobation—Willed or Wages? -- 473 B. Predestination -- 474 C. Foreknowledge and Justice -- 475 D. God’s Love Limited -- 475 IV. Martin Luther (1483-1546) -- 476 A. Bondage of the Will -- 477 B. Is God Responsible for Evil? -- 478 C. God’s Foreknowledge and Omnipotence -- 479 V. John Calvin (1509-1564) -- 482 A. Context for Predestination -- 484 -- 484 -- 484 B. Calvin Defines Predestination -- 486 -- 489 -- 491 -- 495 C. Principle of Election: The Problem of Evil -- 496 D. Reformation Theology after Calvin -- 498 VI. Council of Trent (1545-1563) -- 499 VII. Supralapsarian and Infralapsarian Views -- 499 A. Supralapsarian Election -- 500 B. Infralapsarian Election -- 502 VIII. Synod of Dort (1618-1619) -- 504 IX. Francis Turretin (1623-1687) -- 506 X. Wilhelmus à Brakel (1635-1711) -- 510 XI. Herman Bavinck (1854—1921) -- 513 XII. Louis Berkhof (1873-1957) -- 517 XIII. G. C. Berkouwer (1903-1996) -- 519 A. Caricatures -- 519 B. Romans 9 -- 520 C. Election in Christ -- 523 XIV. Divine Command Theory of Ethics -- 527 XV. Amyraldianism -- 529 XVI. General Evaluation -- 530 A. Post-Crucifixion Missions: Christ and the Spirit -- 532 B. Pelagianism -- 534 C. Freedom of Choice -- 536 D. Conditionality in Predestination -- 538 E. God’s Glory: Goal of Predestination -- 540 F. God’s Reprobation -- 541 G. God’s Will -- 544 XVII. Predestination in Scripture -- 545 XVIII. A Christological-Covenant View of Election -- 550 XIX. Conclusion -- 551 XX. Study Questions -- 552 Chapter Sixteen God’s Plan: Opponents to Predestination I. Introduction -- 556 II. Contribution of Romans 9 -- 558 III. Corporate Election -- 561 IV. Potter Passages -- 565 V. Relational God -- 567 VI. Immutable Decree: Questioned by Conditionality -- 570 VII. Opponents of Traditional Predestination -- 572 A. Henry Bullinger (1504-1575) -- 573 B. Philipp Melanchthon (1497-1560) and the -- 575 -- 576 -- 577 -- 577 C. James Arminius (1560-1609) -- 579 -- 581 -- 583 D. John Wesley (1703-1791) -- 584 E. Charles Finney (1792-1875) -- 587 F. Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768-1834) -- 592 G. Karl Barth (1886-1968) -- 593 -- 593 -- 595 -- 597 -- 598 -- 600 VIII. Christological Focus in the Creeds -- 601 IX. Four Views -- 604 X. Alvin Platinga (1932—) -- 605 A. Problem of Evil -- 606 B. Free Will Defense Theory -- 607 XI. Sovereignty and Freedom -- 610 XII. Complexities -- 615 XIII. The Predestination God -- 618 XIV. The Biblical God -- 621 XV. Final Judgment -- 623 XVI. Christ as Supreme Authority about Predestination -- 626 XVII. Conclusion -- 626 XVIII. Study Questions -- 627 Name Index -- 629 Scripture Index -- 639 Subject Index -- 661 Abstract: What is theology all about? In this long-awaited second volume of a multi-volume comprehensive theological system, Norman R. Gulley addresses the foundational question about theology: Who is God? The author starts with the premise that theology is, ultimately, about the essential character of God. What kind of God is He? Is He a good God or a bad One? Gulley's biblical "cosmic controversy" worldview undergirds his answers to the most fundamental questions of what the Bible teaches about God. Working steadfastly from the platform of sola scriptura established in his Prolegomena, Gulley takes the serious reader on a wide-ranging and insightful tour of the many facets of the Doctrine of God. His approach first presents his biblical argument on a given topic, and then provides a helpful survey and summary critique of other views throughout the history of theological and philosophical thought. Beginning with God as relational Trinity, Gulley addresses many other vital questions posed over time, including arguments about timelessness, immutability, and impassability; old and new covenants; God's revelation through the biblical Sanctuary; His ultimate plan of mediation; redemption and restoration; process and openness theology; predestination; and other topics. As in the first volume, Gulley ranges easily over millennia in showing how different concepts and philosophies have affected our understanding of the character of God. This ambitious work is designed for both the committed student of theology and the general reader who will appreciate each chapter's opening summary, concise conclusion, and helpful set of study questions. This volume provides the fundamental basis of the rest of the system, and is a paradigm shift from many traditional views about God..Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references and index..Subject - Topical Name: Trinity -- History of doctrines | Seventh-day Adventists -- Doctrines Item type: Книги
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Бібліотека Українського Гуманітарного Інституту
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Includes bibliographical references and index.

Preface xix Acknowledgments xxiv God As Trinity xxv Chapter One God’s Eternal Relationship: Trinity I. Introduction 3 A. Relational Trinity 3 B. Relational Trinity throughout the System 5 C. Replacement of Distortions about God 6 II. Scripture’s Revelation of the Persons in the Relational Trinity 8 A. The Father 8 1. Scripture Calls the Father “God” 8 2. Christ Calls the Father “God” 9 B. The Son 10 1. Scripture Calls Christ “God” 10 2. The Father Calls Christ “God” 12 3. Relationship to the Father 12 4. Christ as Creator 13 5. “I AM” Name 13 6. King of Kings 14 7. Same Nature as God 14 8. Same Worship as God 15 C. The Spirit 16 1. The Spirit in the Old Testament 16 2. The Spirit Is a Person 16 3. Scripture Calls the Spirit “God” 18 4. Christ Calls the Spirit “God” 19 5. Spirit as God beyond the Book of Acts 19 D. Trinity: First Doctrine Explored 19 III. Old Testament Evidence for the Relational Trinity 22 A. The Shema Does Not Preclude Plurality 23 B. Evidence for Divine Plurality 24 C. Explicit Trinity 26 1. Trinity in Isaiah 26 D. Conclusion 28 IV. New Testament Evidence for the Relational Trinity 29 A. Christ Reveals the Trinity 30 B. Trinity in the Epistles 30 V. Conclusion 32 VI. Study Questions 32 VII. Appendices 33 Appendix 1: Additional Notes on Greek Grammar 33 1. The Granville Sharp Rule (1798) 33 2. The E. C. Cowell Rule (1931-1933) 34 Appendix 2: The Christ of Jehovah’s Witnesses 37 Appendix 3: The God of Islam 39 Chapter Two God’s Eternal Relationship: Nature and Attributes I. Introduction 43 II. Nature of God 43 A. Debate on God’s Love 43 B. Importance of Freedom 45 C. God’s Holy Love: During the Sin Problem 46 D. Christ’s Holy Love: At Calvary 48 E. “God Is Love”: Relational Trinity 49 F. How We Know God Is Love 51 III. Names of God 53 IV. Descriptions of God 56 A. Descriptions of God’s Physical Characteristics 57 B. Descriptions of God’s Emotions 58 C. Descriptions of God's Acts 59 D. Descriptions of God’s Occupations 60 E. Metaphorical Descriptions of God 60 V. Attributes of God 60 A. Incommunicable Attributes: Self-Existence 66 1. Independence 67 2. Omnipresence 68 3. Eternity 70 4. Omnipotence 70 5. Omniscience 71 6. Constancy 72 B. Communicable Attributes: Self-Impartation 73 1. Fruit of the Spirit 74 2. Gifts of the Spirit 75 VI. Conclusion 77 VII. Study Questions 77 Chapter Three God’s Eternal Relationship: Early Patristic Views I. Introduction 81 II. Historical Overview of Anti-Trinitarian Views 83 A. Monarchianism 83 B. Arianism 84 III. Historical Overview of Trinitarian Views 84 IV. The Role of Proverbs 8:22 85 V. Pre-Nicene Fathers 87 A. Justin Martyr (ca. 100-165) 87 B. Irenaeus (120-202) 88 1. Evaluation 90 C. Tertullian (145-220) 91 1. Evaluation 93 D. Origen (ca. 185-254) 94 1. Evaluation 96 E. Novatian (ca. 210-280) 96 1. Evaluation 98 VI. Council of Nicaea 99 VII. Post-Nicene Fathers 102 A. Hilary of Poitiers (ca. 300-367) 103 1. Evaluation 105 B. Athanasius (293-373) 105 1. Evaluation 109 C. Basil the Great of Caesarea (ca. 330-379) 111 1. Evaluation 1ll D. Gregory of Nazianzus (ca. 330-389) 112 1. Evaluation 114 E. Gregory of Nyssa (ca. 335-395) 115 1. Evaluation 116 F. Augustine of Hippo (354-430) 117 1. Evaluation 118 VIII. Where Is the Unity of God Found among the Trinity? 120 IX. Biblical Definition of “Firstborn” and “Only Begotten” in Reference to Christ as Son of the Father 121 A. Firstborn of Creation 122 B. Only Begotten 128 X. Comparison of the Trinity in Eternity and the Trinity in Salvation History 129 XI. Co-Inherence 130 XII. Trinitarian Relations: Perichoresis Examined 131 XIII. Conclusion 134 XIV. Study Questions 135 XV. Appendix: Filioque Debate 135 Chapter Four God’s Eternal Relationship: Trinitarian Covenant I. Introduction 140 II. Trinitarian Covenant 141 III. Functional Subordination 142 IV. Subordination as Revelation of Love 148 V. Impact of Subordination on Other Doctrines 149 VI. End of Functional Subordination 150 VII. Progressive Steps in the Exaltation of Jesus Christ through Time 156 A. Trinitarian Relations 156 VIII. Conclusion 158 IX. Study Questions 158 X. Appendix: The God of Human Construction 158 Chapter Five God’s Eternal Relationship: Timeless and Spaceless God I. Introduction 166 II. How Believing in a Timeless God Affects Biblical Doctrines 168 A. Doctrine of Revelation (Prolegomena) 168 B. Doctrine of God (Theology) 168 C. Doctrine of Creation (Anthropology) 169 D. Doctrine of Christ (Christology) 170 E. Doctrine of Salvation (Soteriology) 171 F. Doctrine of the Church (Ecclesiology) 172 172 III. Biblical View of God 174 A. Eternal 174 B. Acts in Time 177 C. Incarnational Insight 178 D. Future 179 IV. Timeless God of Philosophy 179 A. Historic Positions 179 1. Aristotle (384-322 b.c.) 180 2. Albert the Great (1193-1280)/Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) 181 B. Modern Positions 182 1. Nicholas Wolterstorff (1932—) 182 2. William Lane Craig (1949—) 183 V. Timeless God of Theology 184 A. Historic Positions 185 1. Augustine of Hippo (354-430) 185 2. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) 186 3. Francis Turretin (1623—1687) 187 B. Modern Positions 188 1. Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768-1834) 188 2. Augustus H. Strong (1836-1921) 189 3. Louis Berkhof (1873-1957) 189 4. Wayne Grudem (1948-) 189 5. Norman Geisler (1932-) 190 6. Carl F. H. Henry (1913-2003) 191 C. Evaluation 192 VI. Timeless and Temporal God of Theology 193 A. Herman Bavinck (1854—1921) 193 B. Karl Barth (1886-1968) 194 C. Thomas F. Torrance (1913—2007) 198 D. John Frame (1939—) 199 VII. Relatively Timeless God of Theology 201 A. Alan Padgett (1955—) 201 VIII. Supertemporal God of Theology 202 A. Millard J. Erikson (1932-) 202 IX. Temporal God of Theology 206 A. Paul Tillich (1886-1965) 206 B. Wolfhart Pannenberg (1928-) 207 C. Oscar Cullmann (1902—1999) 207 D. John Feinberg (1946-) 208 E. Robert W. Jenson (1958-) 209 X. Infinite Time as a Theological Term 210 A. Newton (1643-1727) and Einstein (1879-1955) 210 XI. Spaceless God 212 XII. Conclusion 213 XIII. Study Questions 213 Chapter Six God’s Eternal Relationship: Classical Views I. Introduction 216 II. Immutable and Impassible Views of God 217 III. Greek Origins of the Classical View 219 A. Plato (428-ca. 347 b.c.) 220 B. Aristotle (384-322 b.c.) 222 C. The Jew Philo: Impacted by Plato, Impacted Christian Theology (ca. 20 b.c.-a.d. 50) 223 IV. Conclusion 224 V. Study Questions 225 VI. Appendix: Debate on the Influence of Greek Philosophy on Classical Theism 225 A. Negative Influence 225 B. Positive Influence 227 Chapter Seven God’s Eternal Relationship: Contemporary Views I. Introduction 231 II. Philosophical and Theological Roots of Process and Openness Theology 232 A. Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947) 232 B. Charles Hartshorne (1897—2000) 236 III. Process Theology 237 A. Evaluation: Process Theology as Threat to Christianity 240 IV. Openness View of God 242 A. Compared to the Process View of God 242 B. Clark Pinnock 243 1. “Systematic Theology” (1994) 243 2. Most Moved Mover (2001) 245 3. Evaluation 247 C. Richard Rice 250 1. Hartshorne’s Impact on Rice 250 2. The Openness of God (1980) 252 3. Evaluation 254 4. Rice’s First Assumption: God’s Exhaustive Foreknowledge Not Compatible with Human Freedom 256 5. Rice’s Second Assumption: No One Biblical View of God 258 D. Does Scripture Support a Process or an Openness View? 259 1. Does God Repent and Have Regret? 261 2. Does God’s Foreknowledge Deny Human Freedom? 263 3. Does God Test Humans to Gain Knowledge? 264 E. Does Biblical Literalism Sometimes Have Problems? 268 F. New Paradigm Needed 269 V. Conclusion 271 VI. Study Questions 272 Chapter Eight God’s Plan: Redemption and Restoration I. Introduction 274 II. God’s Redemption-Restoration Plan 275 III. God’s Plan Is Christ Centered 276 IV. Creator of the Universe 277 V. Creation of Angels 278 VI. God Appears as an Angel to Humans 279 VII. Christ’s Mediation Plan 281 VIII. Cosmic Controversy Paradigm 284 IX. Rebellion in Heaven: Satan’s Contrary Plan 285 A. Broken Law 285 B. Broken Relationship 285 X. Biblical Overview of the Controversy 286 A. What Understanding God in the Context of the Controversy Teaches Us 288 B. Final Judgment and Calvary 290 C. Selfishness and Self-Sacrificing Love 292 D. Satan Distorts the Truth about God 293 XI. Creation of Humans 293 XII. Providence for Humans 294 XIII. Redemption Plan 295 XIV. God’s Restoration Plan: Its Implications for Hell 298 XV. God’s Sovereignty Defined: By the Cosmic Controversy 305 XVI. Conclusion 307 XVII. Study Questions 308 Chapter Nine God’s Plan: Covenant—Creation through to Israel I. Introduction 310 II. God’s Covenant: Relational, Not Contractual 311 III. Everlasting Covenant 313 IV. Early Covenant Examples 314 V. Covenant with Noah 315 VI. Covenant with Abraham 316 VII. Covenant Renewed to Israel as a Nation 316 VIII. Covenant Repeated at Mount Sinai 317 IX. Covenant Conditions Given to Moses 318 A. How a Covenant Relationship Can Be Lost 320 B. How a Covenant Relationship Can Remain 322 X. Conclusion 322 XI. Study Questions 322 Chapter Ten God’s Plan: the Covenant—Solomon through to Judah I. Introduction 324 II. Solomon’s Kingdom Divided 326 III. Kings of Israel and Judah 327 IV. God’s Covenant Plan 329 V. Covenant Plan for Post-Exilic Judah 329 A. Return to Homeland 329 B. Return to Covenant Relationship 330 C. Predictive Prophecy as Incentive 331 D. Prophecy as Conditional 332 E. What Might Have Been 334 VI. Conclusion 336 VII. Study Questions 336 Chapter Eleven God’s Plan: Old and New Covenants I. Introduction 339 XI. Creation of Humans 293 XII. Providence for Humans 294 XIII. Redemption Plan 295 XIV. God’s Restoration Plan: Its Implications for Hell 298 XV. God’s Sovereignty Defined: By the Cosmic Controversy 305 XVI. Conclusion 307 XVII. Study Questions 308 Chapter Nine God’s Plan: Covenant—Creation through to Israel I. Introduction 310 II. God’s Covenant: Relational, Not Contractual 311 III. Everlasting Covenant 313 IV. Early Covenant Examples 314 V. Covenant with Noah 315 VI. Covenant with Abraham 316 VII. Covenant Renewed to Israel as a Nation 316 VIII. Covenant Repeated at Mount Sinai 317 IX. Covenant Conditions Given to Moses 318 A. How a Covenant Relationship Can Be Lost 320 B. How a Covenant Relationship Can Remain 322 X. Conclusion 322 XI. Study Questions 322 Chapter Ten God’s Plan: the Covenant—Solomon through to Judah I. Introduction 324 II. Solomon’s Kingdom Divided 326 III. Kings of Israel and Judah 327 IV. God’s Covenant Plan 329 V. Covenant Plan for Post-Exilic Judah 329 A. Return to Homeland 329 B. Return to Covenant Relationship 330 C. Predictive Prophecy as Incentive 331 D. Prophecy as Conditional 332 E. What Might Have Been 334 VI. Conclusion 336 VII. Study Questions 336 Chapter Eleven God’s Plan: Old and New Covenants I. Introduction 339 II. Does God Change? 339 A. What Preceded Sinai 341 B. What Happened at Sinai 343 C. What Happened After Sinai 346 D. God’s Self-Description as Lawgiver at Sinai 346 III. Is the Sinai Covenant Obsolete? 349 IV. Marriage Metaphor 352 V. The Grace of God in Deuteronomy 356 VI. New Covenant 358 A. New as Renewal 358 B. Law Continues 363 VII. How to Interpret Covenant Passages 363 A. Paul’s Only Concern with the Sinai Covenant 364 1. Wrong Use of the Law: Before Conversion 364 2. Right Interpretation of the Law: After Conversion 365 B. More than Historical Periods 368 1. Wrong Views of Historical Periods 369 2. Why More than Historical Periods? 372 C. Old and New Covenants Embrace the Same Gospel 374 1. Sanctification 374 2. Reconciliation 375 3. Mission 375 4. Justification 376 VIII. Same Relational God in Both Covenants 376 IX. Conclusion 377 X. Study Questions 378 Chapter Twelve God’s Plan: Contemporary Challenges I. Introduction 381 II. New Perspectives on Paul 382 A. E. P. Sanders 385 1. Paul and Palestinian Judaism (1977) 385 2. Evaluation 388 B. N. T. Wright 389 1. Climax of the Covenant (1993) 389 2. Evaluation 390 3. What Saint Paul Really Said: Was Paul of Tarsus the Real Founder of Christianity? (1997) 391 4. Evaluation 393 5. “New Perspectives on Paul” (2003) 395 6. Evaluation 397 C. James D. G. Dunn 398 1. The Theology of Paul the Apostle (1988) 398 2. Evaluation 399 3. The New Perspective on Paul (2005) 400 4. Evaluation 401 D. Narrative Dimension of NPP: Beyond Sanders and Dunn 402 1. Evaluation 403 E. Scholarly Questioning of NPP 404 III. New Covenant Theology: Presentation and Evaluation 406 IV. Federal Vision: Presentation and Evaluation 409 V. Conclusion 410 VI. Study Questions 412 Chapter Thirteen God’s Plan: Problem Texts I. Introduction 416 II. Texts for Consideration 417 A. General Background: Corinthians and Galatians 417 B. 2 Corinthians 3:6—8 420 C. 2 Corinthians 3:14 421 D. Galatians 3:19-25 423 1. Sinai Law Claimed as Temporary 427 E. Galatians 4:24—26 428 F. Hebrews 8:6—10 430 III. Comments on Covenants and the Law 432 IV. Christ’s Contribution 433 V. One Gospel 434 VI. God’s Everlasting Covenant and Everlasting Gospel 435 VII. Conclusion 435 VIII. Study Questions 436 Chapter Fourteen God’s Plan: Unfolded in the Sanctuary I. Introduction 439 II. Sanctuary for Sinners 439 III. Sanctuary System 441 A. Not Based on Philosophy 441 B. Importance of Divine Specifications 443 C. Post-Exilic Temple Specifications 445 D. Reveals Universal Gospel 446 E. God’s Laws and the Sanctuary 448 F. System Described 448 1. Experiential Visual Aid: Salvation 449 2. Historical Visual Aid: Moral and Ceremonial Laws 451 3. Historical Visual Aid: Christ’s Ministry for Humans 452 4. Historical Visual Aid: Christs Ministry for the Cosmos 453 5. Historical Visual Aid: Theodicy Questions Answered 454 G. Largely Neglected 458 H. Christ’s Two-Phased Ministry 458 IV. Conclusion 463 V. Study Questions 464 Chapter Fifteen God’s Plan: Proponents of Predestination I. Introduction 468 II. Augustine of Hippo (354-430) 469 A. Rejection of Human Freedom 471 B. Dualism in God 472 III. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) 473 A. Reprobation—Willed or Wages? 473 B. Predestination 474 C. Foreknowledge and Justice 475 D. God’s Love Limited 475 IV. Martin Luther (1483-1546) 476 A. Bondage of the Will 477 B. Is God Responsible for Evil? 478 C. God’s Foreknowledge and Omnipotence 479 V. John Calvin (1509-1564) 482 A. Context for Predestination 484 1. Christian Liberty 484 2. Christian Prayer 484 B. Calvin Defines Predestination 486 1. God’s Foreknowledge 489 2. Universal Salvation? 491 3. Reprobation Softened 495 C. Principle of Election: The Problem of Evil 496 D. Reformation Theology after Calvin 498 VI. Council of Trent (1545-1563) 499 VII. Supralapsarian and Infralapsarian Views 499 A. Supralapsarian Election 500 B. Infralapsarian Election 502 VIII. Synod of Dort (1618-1619) 504 IX. Francis Turretin (1623-1687) 506 X. Wilhelmus à Brakel (1635-1711) 510 XI. Herman Bavinck (1854—1921) 513 XII. Louis Berkhof (1873-1957) 517 XIII. G. C. Berkouwer (1903-1996) 519 A. Caricatures 519 B. Romans 9 520 C. Election in Christ 523 XIV. Divine Command Theory of Ethics 527 XV. Amyraldianism 529 XVI. General Evaluation 530 A. Post-Crucifixion Missions: Christ and the Spirit 532 B. Pelagianism 534 C. Freedom of Choice 536 D. Conditionality in Predestination 538 E. God’s Glory: Goal of Predestination 540 F. God’s Reprobation 541 G. God’s Will 544 XVII. Predestination in Scripture 545 XVIII. A Christological-Covenant View of Election 550 XIX. Conclusion 551 XX. Study Questions 552 Chapter Sixteen God’s Plan: Opponents to Predestination I. Introduction 556 II. Contribution of Romans 9 558 III. Corporate Election 561 IV. Potter Passages 565 V. Relational God 567 VI. Immutable Decree: Questioned by Conditionality 570 VII. Opponents of Traditional Predestination 572 A. Henry Bullinger (1504-1575) 573 B. Philipp Melanchthon (1497-1560) and the Synergistic Controversy (1550-1567) 575 1. Formula of Concord (1577) 576 a. Article Two 577 b. Article Eleven 577 C. James Arminius (1560-1609) 579 1. The Works of Arminius 581 2. Roger Olson’s Evaluation 583 D. John Wesley (1703-1791) 584 E. Charles Finney (1792-1875) 587 F. Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768-1834) 592 G. Karl Barth (1886-1968) 593 1. Commentary on Romans 593 2. Church Dogmatics 595 3. Election of Judas? 597 4. Calvin and Barth Compared 598 5. Evaluation of Barth 600 VIII. Christological Focus in the Creeds 601 IX. Four Views 604 X. Alvin Platinga (1932—) 605 A. Problem of Evil 606 B. Free Will Defense Theory 607 XI. Sovereignty and Freedom 610 XII. Complexities 615 XIII. The Predestination God 618 XIV. The Biblical God 621 XV. Final Judgment 623 XVI. Christ as Supreme Authority about Predestination 626 XVII. Conclusion 626 XVIII. Study Questions 627 Name Index 629 Scripture Index 639 Subject Index 661

What is theology all about? In this long-awaited second volume of a multi-volume comprehensive theological system, Norman R. Gulley addresses the foundational question about theology: Who is God? The author starts with the premise that theology is, ultimately, about the essential character of God. What kind of God is He? Is He a good God or a bad One? Gulley's biblical "cosmic controversy" worldview undergirds his answers to the most fundamental questions of what the Bible teaches about God. Working steadfastly from the platform of sola scriptura established in his Prolegomena, Gulley takes the serious reader on a wide-ranging and insightful tour of the many facets of the Doctrine of God. His approach first presents his biblical argument on a given topic, and then provides a helpful survey and summary critique of other views throughout the history of theological and philosophical thought. Beginning with God as relational Trinity, Gulley addresses many other vital questions posed over time, including arguments about timelessness, immutability, and impassability; old and new covenants; God's revelation through the biblical Sanctuary; His ultimate plan of mediation; redemption and restoration; process and openness theology; predestination; and other topics. As in the first volume, Gulley ranges easily over millennia in showing how different concepts and philosophies have affected our understanding of the character of God. This ambitious work is designed for both the committed student of theology and the general reader who will appreciate each chapter's opening summary, concise conclusion, and helpful set of study questions. This volume provides the fundamental basis of the rest of the system, and is a paradigm shift from many traditional views about God.

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